|Evaluation of DNA damage as a quality marker for rainbow trout sperm cryopreservation and use of LDL as cryoprotectant.
|Pérez-Cerezales, S, Martínez-Páramo, S, Beirão, J, Herráez, MP
|Year of Publication
|2010 Jul 15
|Animals, Cryopreservation, Cryoprotective Agents, DNA Damage, Lipoproteins, LDL, Male, Oncorhynchus mykiss, Spermatozoa
Defining reliable and objective biomarkers of sperm quality is a complex matter, because it does not rely on a particular characteristic of the milt. Susceptibility to cryopreservation varies between ejaculations and throughout the year, and the evaluation of fresh sperm does not always provide accurate information about their fertilization ability after freezing and thawing. DNA is one of the cell components prone to suffering cryodamage and several studies have pointed out the importance of the maintenance of its integrity during sperm cryostorage. The authors analysed sperm from rainbow trout for four weeks during the natural reproductive season. Viability, DNA integrity, and fertilization ability were evaluated. Furthermore, in order to increase membrane and DNA protection during sperm cryopreservation, the authors optimized the use of LDL fraction from egg yolk as a cryoprotectant during the analysed period. Results revealed that the evaluation of DNA damage in fresh sperm reveals subtle cell damage, not evidenced in fresh sperm by the other parameters. DNA fragmentation increased from 8 to 31% during the reproductive season, indicating pre-freezing differences that render the cells more susceptible to cryodamage. Also, the use of 12% LDL (low density lipoprotein) fraction, instead of the commonly used pure egg yolk, improved sperm quality after freezing. When LDL was used, post-thaw quality remained constant throughout the analysed period, providing around 60% of eyed embryos. In contrast, when egg yolk was used, post-thaw quality decreased significantly at the end of the season and the percentage of eyed embryos dropped from 60% to 27%. Results demonstrated that reduction in DNA integrity takes place during the reproductive season affecting susceptibility to cryodamage and that the protective effect of egg yolk is very much improved when only their LDL fraction is added to the cryopreservation extender.