|Title||Incorporation of ascorbic acid and α-tocopherol to the extender media to enhance antioxidant system of cryopreserved sea bass sperm.|
|Publication Type||Journal Article|
|Authors||Martínez-Páramo, S, Diogo, P, Dinis, MT, Herráez, MP, Sarasquete, C, Cabrita, E|
|Year of Publication||2012|
|Date Published||2012 Apr 1|
|Keywords||alpha-Tocopherol, Animals, Antioxidants, Ascorbic Acid, Bass, Cryopreservation, Glutathione Peroxidase, Glutathione Reductase, Lipid Peroxidation, Male, Oxidation-Reduction, Oxidative Stress, Reproductive Techniques, Assisted, Sperm Motility, Spermatozoa, Superoxide Dismutase|
Despite the overwhelming application of sperm cryopreservation in aquaculture and broodstock management, its detrimental effects on sperm quality must be taken into account. Imbalance of reactive oxygen species is considered one of the main triggers of cell damage after cryopreservation, because the spermatozoa antioxidant system is decimated during this process, mainly because the natural antioxidants present in seminal plasma diminish when sperm is diluted in extenders. It has been demonstrated that the addition of antioxidants to the extender improves the quality of thawed sperm. Thus, the aim of the present work was to evaluate the status of the antioxidant system in cryopreserved sea bass sperm, and the possibility of enhancing this system to reduce oxidation of the membrane compounds by extender supplementation with vitamins. To do this, sperm from European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) was cryopreserved using an extender control (NAM), supplemented with 0.1 mm α-tocopherol or 0.1 mm ascorbic acid. Sperm motility (computer assisted sperm analysis (CASA) parameters), viability (SYBR Green/propidium iodide (PI)), lipid peroxidation (malondialdehyde (MDA) levels) and protein oxidation (DNPH levels) were analyzed, as well as the status of the sperm antioxidant system by determining glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase and superoxide dismutase (GPX, GSR and SOD) activity. The results demonstrated that extenders containing vitamins significantly increased sperm motility. Total motility, velocity and linearity increased from 31.2 ± 3.0 μm/sec, 18.3 ± 1.7 μm/sec and 46.9 ± 2.0% in extender containing 0.1 mm α-tocopherol or 30.6 ± 3.9 μm/sec, 19.5 ± 1.6 μm/sec and 47.9 ± 2.2% in extender containing 1 mm ascorbic acid respect to the extender control (20.7 ± 3.3 μm/sec, 13.8 ± 1.7 μm/sec and 37.3 ± 4.1%). However, viability and levels of lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation were not affected by the presence of these antioxidants, suggesting that membrane impairment could be more associated to osmotic shock or membrane destabilization than oxidative damage. The increased activity of both GPX and GSR after cryopreservation showed that the antioxidant system of sea bass sperm must play an important role in preventing oxidation of the membrane compounds. In conclusion, the addition of α-tocopherol and ascorbic acid to the extender media, together with the antioxidant system of the spermatozoa improved sea bass sperm motility, which is one of the impairment parameters most affected by cryopreservation.