|Title||The antifreeze protein type I (AFP I) increases seabream (Sparus aurata) embryos tolerance to low temperatures.|
|Publication Type||Journal Article|
|Authors||Robles, V, Barbosa, V, Herráez, MP, Martínez-Páramo, S, M. Cancela, L|
|Year of Publication||2007|
|Date Published||2007 Jul 15|
|Keywords||Animals, Antifreeze Proteins, Type I, Cryopreservation, Embryo, Nonmammalian, Fish Proteins, Sea Bream, Temperature|
To date, all attempts at fish embryo cryopreservation have failed. One of the main reasons for this to occur is the high chilling sensitivity reported in fish embryos thus emphasizing the need for further testing of different methods and alternative cryoprotective agents (CPAs) in order to improve our chances to succeed in this purpose. In this work we have used the antifreeze protein type I (AFP I) as a natural CPA. This protein is naturally expressed in sub-arctic fish species, and inhibits the growth of ice crystals as well as recrystallization during thawing. Embryos from Sparus aurata were microinjected with AFP I at different developmental stages, 2 cells and blastula, into the blastomere-yolk interface and into the yolk sac, respectively. Control, punctured and microinjected embryos were subjected to chilling at two different temperatures, 0 degrees C (1h) and -10 degrees C (15min) when embryos reached 5-somite stage. Embryos were subjected to -10 degrees C chilling in a 3M DMSO extender to avoid ice crystal formation in the external solution. Survival after chilling was established as the percentage of embryos that hatch. To study the AFP I distribution in the microinjected embryos, a confocal microscopy study was done. Results demonstrate that AFP I can significantly improve chilling resistance at 0 degrees C, particularly in 2-cell microinjected embryos, displaying nearly 100% hatching rates. This fact is in agreement with the confocal microscopy observations which confirmed the presence of the AFP protein in embryonic cells. These results support the hypothesis that AFP protect cellular structures by stabilizing cellular membranes.